In 1883 Gottlieb Hauser united various independent Swiss watchmakers in a cooperative under the banner Alpina Union Horlogère establishing manufactures in Glashütte, Biel, Geneva and Besançon. In 1938 Hauser laid down the four essential pillars of a sports watch (anti-magnetic, water-resistant, anti-shock and a steel case) with the Alpina 4 model. Hit by the quartz crisis of the 1970s, the brand was resuscitated by Dutch entrepreneur Peter Stas in 2002 who has concentrated on producing robust, accessibly-priced sports watches – with collections like the Alpiner, the Startimer pilot and the Seastrong diver. With five mechanical in-house calibres under its belt, Alpina has also ventured into smartwatch terrain. Alpina and sister company Frederique Constant were acquired by Citizen in 2016.